Materialist Dialectic

Human soul
Unbridgeable gulf
Unconscious matter

Positioning all things in the universe as animated, some ancient Greek philosophers were hylozoists. Thales, Anaximenes, and Heraclitus taught that all material objects are alive, without necessarily possessing sensations or experiences. The Stoics believed that a world soul was the vital force of existence. In this way, spirit may be a universal and primordial feature.

“Knowledge is not a passion from without the mind, but an active exertion of the inward strength, vigor and power of the mind, displaying itself from within.” – Ralph Cudworth